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Lithium Thionyl Chloride (Li-SOCl2)
Lithium-thionyl chloride cells have a metallic lithium anode and a liquid cathode comprising a porous carbon current collector filled with SOCl2. They deliver a voltage of 3.6V. There are cylindrical and button shape, from 1/2AA to D format, with spiral type for high current and bobbin construction for small current. Lithium-thiony chloride cells have a high energy density, partly because of their high nominal voltage of 3.6V. Bobbin type can reach 760Wh/kg, for a capacity of19Ah at 3.6V in D format. Because self-discharge is extremely low, this kind of cell can support long storage periods and achieve a service life of 10 to 20 years.

Lithium Manganese Dioxide (Li-MnO2)
Lithium-manganese dioxide cells have an anode in metallic lithium (the lightest of the metals) and a solid manganese dioxide cathode, immersed in a non-corrosive, non-toxic organic electrolyte. They deliver a voltage of 2.8V. There are cylindrical and button in shape. Also, available are bobbin type and spiral type.

Lithium-ion ( Li-ion)
Lithium-ion electrochemistry involves the use of lithium insertion compounds. In a lithium-ion cell, the negative electrode is graphite and the positive electrode is a lithiium-bearing metal compound. The range of single cell capacity of Li-ion can be from 50mAh to 15,000mAh, and range of cell thickness is from 1mm to 20mm.

Nickel Metal-Hydride (Ni-MH)
Nickel-metal hydride cells are rechargeable and deliver a voltage of 1.2V. Nickel Metal Hydride batteries can offer up to three times the capacity of the same size standrad Nickel Cadmium batteries, and compatitble with Ni-Cd batteries in all usage. Rechargeable Ni-MH batteries feature the performance, high power and reliability needed for today's high-technology equipment.

Capacitor store energy in an electrostatic field rather than as a chemical state in batteries. No chemical actions involved which menas very long cycle life ispossible. No limit on the cell voltage imposed by the "cell chemistry" as with galvanic cells. Ultracapacitor, supercapacitor or EDLC as they are also called, look very much like batteries. They have double construction consisting of two carbon electrodes immersed in an organic electrolyte.

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rev. 2/19/2009